Antibodies are molecules of glycoprotein nature that have ability to bind antigens either soluble or bound in membranes of cells in a specific way. They are present in plasma and in tissue fluids (lymph, saliva, tears etc.). As most of antibodies belong to the gamma globulins of plasma proteins, they were previously known under the term gammaglobulins; their contemporary nomenclature is immunoglobulins (Ig). There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgE, respectively. They have specific biochemical structure and function. The principal biological role is to bind antigens; except it, they can activate the complement, opsonise bacteria, bind to receptors of various cell of the immune system etc.
B lymphocytes are principal cells that mediate humoral adaptive immunity. After their maturation in the bone marrow, B cells enter peripheral lymphoid tissues, which are the sites of interaction with foreign antigens. Production of antibodies is initiated by the interaction of antigens with a small number of mature B cells specific for each antigen. An antigen binds to the membrane receptors on specific B cells and initiates a series of responses that lead to two principal changes: cell proliferation resulting in expansion of the clone, and differentiation to either plasma cells actively secreting antibodies or to memory cells.
Key words: B cells, subsets of B cells, memory B cells, plasma cells
ECG description, basic pathological findings, step to step description of ECG.
Endocryne system of the human body.
Decription of the endocrine system - part I. The lecture for the 1st year medical students - Dentistry branch (English Programme): describes the role, structures of the system. Provides also the description of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenals, endocrine part of pancreas and pituitary gland.
Physiology of speech and speech laterality.
Physiology of memory and learning, spatial learning, general intelligence
Physiology of emotions, emotion intelligence, anger, fear, happiness.
Physiology of higher brain fiunctions, cortical syndromes, sleep physiology.
Sensory hierarchy of CNS, vision, hearing, pain perception.
Ontogenesis and development of central nervous system.
Antibodies manage to protect us against germs principally by two ways: by enveloping their surfaces (opsonisation), what makes their engulfment and killing by phagocytes easier and more effective or by cell lysis. However, in this case, they need a help from the complement system.
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels, collecting ducts), lymph (origin, composition, formation), lymph flow (intrinsic and extrinsic mechanism), lymphatic tissues and organs (lymph nodes, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue - MALT, spleen, thymus), functions of lymphatic system.
Continuation of the endocrine system description.
Endocrine system - part II. The lecture for the 1st year medical students - Dentistry branch (English programme) - continuation of the part I: describes regulatory role of hypothalamus, pineal gland, thymus, gonadal glands and also chromaffine cells system.
Describes the clinical antomy of the structures of the cardiovascular system: heart and vessels.
Clinical anatomy of the cardiovascular system- the lecture for the 4th year medical students (General Medicine branch), compulsory optional subject Clinical anatomy - summer semester. The lecture provides the description of the cardiovascular system structures from their clinical anatomical point of view.
Clinical anatomy of the lymphatic system.
Clinical anatomy of the lymphatic system - the lecture for the 4th year medical students (General Medicine branch), compulsory optional subject Clinical anatomy. Provides the descriptom of the lymphatic system structures from the point of view of the clinical anatomy.
Protilátky nás pred mikroorganizmami chránia principiálne dvoma spôsobmi: obaľovaním ich povrchu (opsonizácia), čo uľahčuje ich pohltenie a usmrtenie fagocytmi, alebo ich lýzou. V tomto poslednom prípade však potrebujú pomoc zo strany komplementového systému. Tento tvorí viac ako 35 proteínov, ktoré produkuje najmä pečeň a makrofágy, čo umožňuje jeho aktiváciu kdekoľvek v organizme kde prebieha zápal. Zložky komplementu sú súčasťou proteínov plazmy a reprezentujú 10% z globulínovej frakcie.
Common people perceive Immunology as a scientific branch that studies defence of an organism against germs, cancer cells, toxins etc. Nowadays, Immunology is defined a scientific branch that studies immunity, its cellular and molecular processes that proceed after a foreign substance, an antigen, enters our body. There are many notable personalities who contributed to its development. Let us mention only some of them – Louis Pasteur, Ilja Mecnikov, Jean Dausset and many, many others. They contributed to the fact that Immunology belongs to those scientific disciplines that develop the most intensively in recent years.
A success of pregnancy depends on a proper implantation and induction of immune tolerance. The immune system secures it by various mechanisms – special cells, cytokines, HLA molecules, peripheral tolerance take part in.
The immune system of the newborn has also its own specifics as it matures relatively long time till it reaches the same protective ability as characteristic for adults.
Verejnosť vníma imunológiu ako vednú disciplínu, ktorá sa zaoberá štúdiom obranných mechanizmov proti mikroorganizmom, infekčným chorobám. Dnes však Imunológiu vnímame širšie, ako vednú disciplínu, ktorá študuje bunkové a molekulové procesy, ktoré sa odohrávajú v organizme človeka, či zvierat alebo rastlín po vniknutí akejkoľvek cudzej látky do tela. K rozvoju imunológie prispeli početné významné osobnosti, zmieňme sa len o takých velikánoch ako boli Louis Pasteur, Ilja Mečnikov, Jean Dausset a mnohí, mnohí ďalší; svedčia o tom Nobelove ceny, ktoré sa skoro každé 3 – 4 roky dostanú vedeckí pracovníci na poli imunológie. Táto skutočnosť je odrazom prudkého rozmachu tohto fascinujúceho vedného odboru a jeho veľkému významu pre biológiu a medicínu.
Antigen presentation; T cell mediated immunity
.. being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that.. .. cells are not unique population of cells. There are.. .. well as APC, B cell and other cell of the immune system, is regulated by regulatory T cells (Tregs)... ..keywords: presenting cells, HLA molecules, T cells and their..
Cytokines. PAMPs and PRRs
.. activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the immune system. Moreover, cytokines.. .. and differentiation of cells of the immune system. Moreover, cytokines influence functions of.. .. without them. Moreover, they are not present in cells of their hosts. The term “Pathogen.. .. receptors. Instead, the innate immune system recognition of antigens is based on a much..
HLA complex and its significancein biology and medicine
.. proteins present in membranes of all nucleated cells. They form a unique system for which the term.. .. of all nucleated cells. They form a unique system for which the term “Major.. .. they mediate presentation of antigens to T cells, are involved in cooperation of cells o the.. .. involved in cooperation of cells o the immune system and are indispensable for tolerance induction... ..keywords: molecules, HLA system, chromosome 6, antigen presentation,..
.. engulfment and their killing. The phagocytic cells of mammals belong to two complementary systems,.. .. cells of mammals belong to two complementary systems, the myeloid and mononuclear-phagocytic.. .. into several steps: recruitment of inflammatory cells into a site where germs entered the body, local.. .. entered the body, local inflammatory response, systemic response, and resolution. Local inflammatory..
.. infected bush meat. HIV infects a variety of cells of the immune system, including CD4-expressing.. .. infects a variety of cells of the immune system, including CD4-expressing helper T cells,..
Autoimmunity and autoimmune disease
.. principal role of the immune system is to protect the organism from principally two.. .. activated, leading to immune responses, or the cells may be inactivated or eliminated, leading to.. .. is a fundamental property of the normal immune system, and failure of self-tolerance results in immune.. ..keywords: T cells, B cells, antibodies, genes, therapy,..
Type I hypersensitivity (Allergy)
.. IgE antibodies bind to Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils. When these cell-associated.. .. respectively. Anaphylaxis is the extreme and systemic form of the allergic reaction. Mast cell- or..
Hypersensitivity reactions, types II till V
.. belong especially to potentially malignant cells that appear in our organisms as the results of a.. .. principal biological role of the immune system is an eradication of both external as well.. .. involve antibody-mediated destruction of cells. This type of reaction is best seen by.. .. cell destruction by activating the complement system to create pores in the membrane of the foreign..
.. description of immune system, types of leukocytes, blood..
Cytokíny, charakteristika, vlastnosti, klasifikácia
.. dorozumievaciu reč medzi bunkami imunitného systému ale aj inými bunkami. Ich reči rozumejú aj bu..