Antibodies are molecules of glycoprotein nature that have ability to bind antigens either soluble or bound in membranes of cells in a specific way. They are present in plasma and in tissue fluids (lymph, saliva, tears etc.). As most of antibodies belong to the gamma globulins of plasma proteins, they were previously known under the term gammaglobulins; their contemporary nomenclature is immunoglobulins (Ig). There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgE, respectively. They have specific biochemical structure and function. The principal biological role is to bind antigens; except it, they can activate the complement, opsonise bacteria, bind to receptors of various cell of the immune system etc.
B lymphocytes are principal cells that mediate humoral adaptive immunity. After their maturation in the bone marrow, B cells enter peripheral lymphoid tissues, which are the sites of interaction with foreign antigens. Production of antibodies is initiated by the interaction of antigens with a small number of mature B cells specific for each antigen. An antigen binds to the membrane receptors on specific B cells and initiates a series of responses that lead to two principal changes: cell proliferation resulting in expansion of the clone, and differentiation to either plasma cells actively secreting antibodies or to memory cells.
Key words: B cells, subsets of B cells, memory B cells, plasma cells
Antigen presentation; T cell mediated immunity
.. antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being.. .. being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that.. .. not unique population of cells. There are two basic subpopulations, those that express.. .. cells are not unique population of cells. There are.. ..keywords: cells, HLA molecules, T cells and their sub.. ..keywords: presenting cells, HLA molecules, T cells and their.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
Foeto-maternal relationships. The immune system of newborns
.. immune tolerance. The immune system secures it by various mechanisms – special cells,.. .. secures it by various mechanisms – special cells, cytokines, HLA molecules, peripheral tolerance.. .. of pregnancy depends on three the most important biological events: implantation of a blastocyt,.. .. of a blastocyt, invasion of trophoblast cells into decidua and myometrium to enable them an.. ..keywords: Blastocyst, NK cells, HLA molecules, tolerance,.. ..keywords: NK cells, HLA molecules, tolerance, immune system of.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
.. is a process of bacteria engulfment and their killing. The.. .. engulfment and their killing. The phagocytic cells of mammals belong to two complementary systems,.. .. physiological state. Process of inflammation can be also divided into several steps: recruitment of.. .. into several steps: recruitment of inflammatory cells into a site where germs entered the body, local.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
Cytokines. PAMPs and PRRs
.. are soluble peptides that induce activation, proliferation.. .. activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the immune system. Moreover, cytokines.. .. recognises an infinite variety of antigens by millions of cell-surface receptors. Instead,.. .. without them. Moreover, they are not present in cells of their hosts. The term “Pathogen.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Attachments: Attachment ..
Milestones of Immunology, Immune system - an overview, Antigen
.. people perceive Immunology as a scientific branch that studies defence of an organism against.. .. defence of an organism against germs, cancer cells, toxins etc. Nowadays, Immunology is defined a.. .. app. 1012 cells. One has to include to them also billions of molecules, approximately 1020.. .. numerous leucocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells etc., altogether are there app. 1012 cells. One.. ..keywords: of Immunology, notable personalities, Structure and function of the.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Attachments: Attachment ..
HLA complex and its significancein biology and medicine
..bility molecules are genetically determined.. .. proteins present in membranes of all nucleated cells. They form a unique system for which the term.. .. and occupies a large segment of DNA, extending about 3,600 kb, i.e., in classical terms 3.6 cM. It.. .. they mediate presentation of antigens to T cells, are involved in cooperation of cells o the.. ..keywords: bility molecules, HLA system, chromosome 6,.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
.. defects. Must of the lecture devotes to AIDS.&nb.. .. immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by human immunodeficiency type I (HIV-1) and II.. .. infected bush meat. HIV infects a variety of cells of the immune system, including CD4-expressing.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
The complent system and its biological significance
..bodies manage to protect us against germs.. .. are synthesised at various sites throughout the body. Most of them are produced in the liver and.. .. lectin, and alternative. Except target cells lysis, the complement mediates also other.. ..keywords: bodies, complement, lysis of target cells, imune.. ..keywords: complement, lysis of target cells, imune complexes, deficiencies of .. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Attachments: Attachment ..
Type I hypersensitivity (Allergy)
.. I hypersensitivity belongs to the most common disorder mediated by.. ..bodies belonging to IgE class mediate this type of.. .. IgE antibodies bind to Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils. When these cell-associated.. ..keywords: anaphylaxis, atopy, IgE antibodies,.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..
Autoimmunity and autoimmune disease
.. system instead of reacting against foreign and aberrant self-antigens can attack self-molecules... ..bsp; Immunologic tolerance is defined as.. .. activated, leading to immune responses, or the cells may be inactivated or eliminated, leading to.. ..keywords: T cells, B cells, antibodies, genes, therapy,.. ..keywords: T cells, B cells, antibodies, genes, therapy,.. .. MUDr. Milan Buc, DrSc. Prílohy: Príloha ..