B lymphocytes are principal cells that mediate humoral adaptive immunity. After their maturation in the bone marrow, B cells enter peripheral lymphoid tissues, which are the sites of interaction with foreign antigens. Production of antibodies is initiated by the interaction of antigens with a small number of mature B cells specific for each antigen. An antigen binds to the membrane receptors on specific B cells and initiates a series of responses that lead to two principal changes: cell proliferation resulting in expansion of the clone, and differentiation to either plasma cells actively secreting antibodies or to memory cells.
Key words: B cells, subsets of B cells, memory B cells, plasma cells
Metabolism, metabolic rate. Basal metabolic rate. Total daily energy expenditure. Factors that determine the metabolic rate. Measurement of the metabolic rate. Energy balance. Metabolism and physical activity. Oxygen debt. Efficiency of physical work. Metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohysrates. Fed state and fasting state metabolism.
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels, collecting ducts), lymph (origin, composition, formation), lymph flow (intrinsic and extrinsic mechanism), lymphatic tissues and organs (lymph nodes, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue - MALT, spleen, thymus), functions of lymphatic system.
Functional morphology of the vessels, general hemodynamics (velocity of blood flow, flow rate, types of blood flow, blood pressure, resistance of the vessels), functions of arteries, functions of capillaries, functions of veins, regulation of the vascular system, specifics of some circulations (coronary, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, skeletal muscle and cutaneous).
Blood - composition and function. Blood and homeostasis. Red blood elements, haemoglobin. Blood groups, cross-matching test. Erthrocyte sedimenation rate, haematocrit. Leukocytes - types and their immune functions. Platelets and haemostasis. Haemocoagulation. Blood plasma - composition, functios. Haemopoiesis.
1. Part 1 - Physiology of the heart
Contents: Functional morphology of the heart, physiological properties of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, bathmotropy, inotropy), metabolism of the heart, cardiac cycle, manifestations of the heart activity (acoustic, electric, mechanical), regulation of the heart (autoregulation, nervous regulation, humoral regulation, effect of the temperature on the heart)
Slides to the lecture on blood physiology.
Blood - composition, functions. Erythrocytes and their function, haemoglobin. Blood groups. Platelets and haemostasis. Leukocytes and their immune unctions. Plasma - composition, function, osmotic and oncotic pressure. Haemopoiesis. Blood and acid-base balance.
Definition and composition of blood, its function. Determination of hematocrite, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and osmotic resistance.
Blood groups, its determinants, Rh factor, complicationts of transfusion
Basic description of immune system, types of leukocytes, blood smear.