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Time course of nontyphoid salmonellosis in Slovakia 1957-2008

Yearly numbers of new cases of this disease, collected over one half century,were processed by uncostomed biometrical tools – testing of randomness of the time sequence using Poisson and „contagious“ distributions, cosinor regression and crosscorrelation.The older experience of these authors – cycling of the daily numbers of cases during synodic lunar cycle – has been extended to the years´ scales: cycling contemporal with the Moon nutation period was found as significant. It is another evidence for a putative effect of gravity on bacterial virulence of Salmonella. In the mean time, experiments in NASA laboratories,USA found a dangerous increase of Salmonella virulence in microgravity conditions. Practical consequencies for the medical securing of space flight crews are indicated.

author: Miroslav Mikulecký, Miroslav Mikulecký ml. | discipline: Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine, Hygiene, Infectology | viewed: 1112x | published on: 28.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

Circa- and ultradians in the occurrence of simple extrasystoles in healthy men at lowland in the light of inferential statistics

The 24-hour profile of hourly registered extrasystoles mean counts per one subjest in apparently healthy elderly males was studied with the aid of Halberg cosinor regression.

author: Miroslav Mikulecký, Štefan Kujaník | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology | viewed: 1410x | published on: 28.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

Rotor–type hyperbilirubinaemia has no defect in the canalicular bilirubin export pump

Rotor syndrome is a rare familial conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia with notmal liver histology and unknown cause. The hypothesis was tested that it can be an allele variant of Dubin-Johnson syndrome, caused by mutation in ABCC2 gene. The ABCC2 gene and protein were investigated in two patients with this syndrome. No sequence variations were found in 32 exons, adjacent intronic regions and the promoter region of ABCC2. Accordingly, Rotor syndrome is not an allelic variant of ABCC2 deficiency.

author: Miroslav Mikulecký, Martin Hřebíček, Tomáš, Jirásek, Hana Hartmannová, Lenka Nosková, Viktor Stránecký, Robert Ivánek, Stanislav Kmoch, Dita Cebecauerová, Libor Vítek, Iva Subhanová, Pavel Hozák, Milan Jirsa | discipline: Biology, Gastroenterology and Hepatology | viewed: 1452x | published on: 28.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

Cytokines. PAMPs and PRRs

Cytokines. PAMPs and PRRs

Cytokines are soluble peptides that induce activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the immune system. Moreover, cytokines influence functions of cells of other tissues and organs, esp. of nervous and endocrine systems. They act in very low concentrations (10-10 M) what makes them to be like hormones. However, hormones tend to be produced constitutively and are produced by endocrine organs. Cytokines, on the contrary, are secreted after activation of particular cells and secretion is short-lived, generally ranging from a few hours to a few days and there are no specialised organs for their synthesis. Cytokines influence target cell in 4 different ways, synergistic, antagonistic, pleiotropic, and redundant way, respectively. They ca act in a autocrine, paracrine and endocrine manner. There are many cytokines that can be divided into those regulating innate and adaptive immunity, to the group of cytokines endowed by chemotactic properties and those supporting growth of hematopoietic and immune system cells.


author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 5919x | published on: 16.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

HLA complex and its significance in biology and medicine

HLA complex and its significancein biology and medicine

Histocompatibility molecules are genetically determined proteins present in membranes of all nucleated cells. They form a unique system for which the term “Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)” was coined. Each vertebrate species is characterised by its own MHC; that of humans has an abbreviation HLA. This acronym is derived from the words: “human leucocyte antigens” as its fist molecules were discovered in membranes of leucocytes.

author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 2455x | published on: 16.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

Antigen presentation; T cell mediated immunity

Antigen presentation;  T cell mediated immunity

Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments – peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.


author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 1758x | published on: 28.3.2012 | last modified on: 28.3.2012

Phagocytosis. Inflammation

Phagocytosis. Inflammation

Phagocytosis is a process of bacteria engulfment and their killing. The phagocytic cells of mammals belong to two complementary systems, the myeloid and mononuclear-phagocytic systems. The myeloid system consists of cells that phagocyte rapidly, however they are not able of sustained effort. Tthey are represented by neutrophils and eosinophils. In contrast, cells of the mononuclear-phagocytic system act more slowly but are capable of repeated phagocytosis. Mmonocytes and macrophages are principal cell responsible for. Process of phagocytosis can be divided into several steps: chemotactic movement of phagocytes towards invading bacteria, opsonisation and recognition of bacteria by specific receptors, their engulfment and phagolysosome formation, bacteria killing and resolution. Bacteria can be killed by oxygen or nitrogen dependent mechanisms and by various antibacterial substances.

author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 3058x | published on: 8.3.2012 | last modified on: 16.3.2012

The complent system and its biological significance

The complent system and its biological significance

Antibodies manage to protect us against germs principally by two ways: by enveloping their surfaces (opsonisation), what makes their engulfment and killing by phagocytes easier and more effective or by cell lysis. However, in this case, they need a help from the complement system.

author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 2024x | published on: 27.2.2012 | last modified on: 16.3.2012

Antibodies. B cells

Antibodies. B cells

Antibodies are molecules of glycoprotein nature that have ability to bind antigens either soluble or bound in membranes of cells in a specific way. They are present in plasma and in tissue fluids (lymph, saliva, tears etc.). As most of antibodies belong to the gamma globulins of plasma proteins, they were previously known under the term gammaglobulins; their contemporary nomenclature is immunoglobulins (Ig). There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgE, respectively. They have specific biochemical structure and function. The principal biological role is to bind antigens; except it, they can activate the complement, opsonise bacteria, bind to receptors of various cell of the immune system etc.

author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 2097x | published on: 27.2.2012 | last modified on: 16.3.2012

Milestones of Immunology, Immune system - an overview, Antigen

Milestones of Immunology, Immune system - an overview, Antigen

Common people perceive Immunology as a scientific branch that studies defence of an organism against germs, cancer cells, toxins etc. Nowadays, Immunology is defined a scientific branch that studies immunity, its cellular and molecular processes that proceed after a foreign substance, an antigen, enters our body. There are many notable personalities who contributed to its development. Let us mention only some of them – Louis Pasteur, Ilja Mecnikov, Jean Dausset and many, many others. They contributed to the fact that Immunology belongs to those scientific disciplines that develop the most intensively in recent years.

author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 3844x | published on: 27.2.2012 | last modified on: 16.3.2012
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