Orbital tumors can be benign or malignant and arise primarily within the orbit or secondarily from an adjacent source, such as the eyelid, paranasal sinus, or intracranial compartment. Orbital tumors can also be metastatic from distant sites.
Some types of orbital tumors usually cause proptosis and displacement of the globe in a direction opposite the tumor. Pain, diplopia, and vision loss may also be present. The diagnosis of orbital tumors is suspected based on the history, examination, and neuroimaging (CT, MRI, or both), but confirmation often ultimately requires a biopsy. Causes and treatment vary by age group.
Most frequent uveal tumors are “ocular melanoma,” “uveal melanoma,” or “choroidal melanoma” are often used interchangeably. The terms describe melanomas, which arise from the eye, and can occur in the iris, ciliary body and/or choroidal regions of the eye. Melanomas are cancers that arise from specific types of pigmented (colored) cells in the body. Melanomas of the eye are rare.
The wall of the eye has 3 main layers. From outside to inside there is: the white sclera, a blood vessel layer called the uvea (choroid, ciliary body and iris) and an inner retinal layer. Further, the pigment producing cells, “melanocytes” are primarily found in the vascular uveal layer. It is those melanocytes that can turn into malignant melanoma. Therefore, when melanoma happens in the choroid, they are called “choroidal melanoma,” the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. That said, choroidal melanomas are rare with 5 to10 out of each million people diagnosed with a choroidal melanoma each year. Choroidal melanomas can spread to other parts of the body.
Pneumonia - a serious health problem. One of the most common infectious diseases. Important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Community – acquired pneumonia is the sixth cause of death worldwide. Increased incidence of pneumonia with increasing age.
Describes the muscles of the head and neck regions and also their topographical regions.
The presentation gives instructions for the better learning and understanding of the chapter: Muscles of the Head and Neck and topographical regions of the head and neck. Describes the muscles in the groups and layers and finally provides the localisation and content of the topographical regions.
Clinical anatomy of the lymphatic system.
Clinical anatomy of the lymphatic system - the lecture for the 4th year medical students (General Medicine branch), compulsory optional subject Clinical anatomy. Provides the descriptom of the lymphatic system structures from the point of view of the clinical anatomy.
Endocryne system of the human body.
Decription of the endocrine system - part I. The lecture for the 1st year medical students - Dentistry branch (English Programme): describes the role, structures of the system. Provides also the description of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenals, endocrine part of pancreas and pituitary gland.
Continuation of the endocrine system description.
Endocrine system - part II. The lecture for the 1st year medical students - Dentistry branch (English programme) - continuation of the part I: describes regulatory role of hypothalamus, pineal gland, thymus, gonadal glands and also chromaffine cells system.
Describes the clinical antomy of the structures of the cardiovascular system: heart and vessels.
Clinical anatomy of the cardiovascular system- the lecture for the 4th year medical students (General Medicine branch), compulsory optional subject Clinical anatomy - summer semester. The lecture provides the description of the cardiovascular system structures from their clinical anatomical point of view.
Educational materials for students - 3rd Department of Internal Medicine FMCU and University Hospital Bratislava.
Guidelines from Cardiology.