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Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava
Comenius University in Bratislava
MEFANET (MEdical FAculties Educational NETwork) Project

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Getting started with team based learning at the Faculty of Medicine Comenius University in Bratislava

Getting started with team based learning at the Faculty of Medicine Comenius University in Bratislava

The education and training of medical doctors and other health professionals are undergoing fundamental transformation in a worldwide context. The traditional teaching models are currently being substituted or complemented by up-to date study models. They open more space to innovative pedagogic strategies that facilitate active learning and student-centred teaching approaches.
Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative teaching/learning strategy that is based on students’ learning in small teams. It is a relatively new approach in medical education, but the evidence for its academic effectiveness in this field is growing.
Authors of the booklet provide an overview of the basic concepts of the TBL and share their experience with introducing TBL into physiology teaching of medical students.

author: Katarína Babinská, Ing. Miroslav Babinský, RNDr. Ján Bakoš, PhD, MUDr. Silvia Hnilicová, PhD., prof. MUDr. Boris Mravec, PhD., prof. MUDr. Daniela Ostatníková, PhD., Doc. PharmDr. Zdenko Pirník, PhD., Doc. MUDr. Jana Radošinská, PhD., MUDr. Rastislav Važan, PhD. | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology, Other | viewed: 74x | published on: 15.1.2020 | last modified on: 12.2.2020



Human skin seems to be simply external coverage of the human body. This statement is not completely true, as human skin, in addition to its protective function from the external environment, does have a range of other functions such as mechanical barrier, external immune barrier, participation in thermoregulation, excretion of sweat and sebum, sensory functions, and identification functions for the human being. Skin is the largest organ of the human body, as its average surface in adult persons is about 2 m2 and its total mass is about 5 kg. An extensive burn injury affecting more than 20% of the body surface area, can lead to temporary, or permanent dysfunction or failure of the skin organ which could become a life threatening situation.

author: Ján Koller | discipline: Emergency Medicine, Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy | viewed: 705x | published on: 27.2.2018 | last modified on: 27.2.2018


Priapism is an abnormal penile erection which is generally not initiated by sexual stimulation and doesn’t lead to ejaculation lasting more than 6 hours in a case of ischemic priapism. It is an urgent medical condition that requires evaluation and often rapid treatment to avoid loss of erectile function. The priapism may result either from  reduction or loss of the normal venous outflow from the penis=veno-occlusive, ischemic, anoxic or low-flow priapism  or abnormal arterial inflow into the penis= arterial, non-ischemic or high-flow priapism.

author: Ján Breza, Waleed Mohammed A Suwaileh | discipline: Urology | viewed: 1572x | published on: 9.9.2015 | last modified on: 18.9.2015



Epibulbar lesions are formed particularly in the conjunctiva and cornea. These lesions are classified into two distinct types that include pigmented and non-pigmented epibulbar lesions. The pigmented epibulbar lesions are those lesions that have pigments while the non-pigmented lesions are those that are translucent or transparent due to the absence of the pigments.         


author: Alena Furdová, Alsalman Ali Jameel, Silvia Lea Ferková | discipline: Ophthalmology and Optometry, Oncology, Radiation Therapy | viewed: 4602x | published on: 23.5.2014 | last modified on: 23.5.2014

Serological methods II

Serological methods II

Serological methods are basic diagnostic methods used to identify antibodies and antigens in patient sample. Up-to-date serological methods involve detection of unknown concentration of antigen or antibodies in patient sample using specific labelled antibodies. In immunodiagnostics, the most used serological methods are: immunofluorescence (IF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoblotting (Western blotting). Immunofluorescence (IF) detects antigens or antibodies by fluorochrome-labelled antibodies under fluorescence microscope. In the immunodiagnostics the IF is applied to detect autoantibodies in the tissue or patient serum. ELISA detects antigens and antibodies using enzyme-labelled antibodies following evaluation by spectrophotometry. In the immunodiagnostics, ELISA is widely used in quantitative analysis of autoantibodies, antibodies to vaccination antigens, bacterial and viral antigens, cytokines, etc. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a quantitative and sensitive diagnostic method to detect antigens or antibodies by radioisotope-labelled antibodies. In the immunodiagnostics, the RIA is used to detect the level of IgE involved in allergic reactions. Immunoblotting is a qualitative method based on protein separation in gel following by their transfer from the gel to the membrane and protein detection by enzyme-labelled antibodies. ELISA and immunoblotting belongs to the serological methods used in the confirmation of HIV positivity.

author: Vladimíra Ďurmanová | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 2173x | published on: 1.10.2013 | last modified on: 1.10.2013

SKULL (after Cunningham)

Cunningham Textbook of Anatomy (12th Edition, iss. 1981) provides the complete description of the separated skull bones, together with the description of the skull spaces and joints. This decription is suitable for the more detailed study of the skull then that offered by other recommended textbooks, enable students to be better prepared for the tests of Anatomy subject.

Suitable mainly for Dentistry branch students, but of course for the students of the General Medicine branch.

author: Zora Haviarová, Daniel John Cunningham, George John Romanes | discipline: Anatomy | viewed: 2333x | published on: 31.10.2011 | last modified on: 31.10.2011

Physiology of Cardiovascular system 2

ECG description, basic pathological findings, step to step description of ECG. 

author: Július Hodosy | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology | viewed: 2156x | published on: 20.4.2011 | last modified on: 16.6.2011

Blood physiology 1st seminar

Definition and composition of blood, its function. Determination of hematocrite, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and osmotic resistance. 

author: Július Hodosy | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology | viewed: 2972x | published on: 23.9.2010 | last modified on: 25.5.2011

Blood physiology 2nd seminar

 Blood groups, its determinants, Rh factor, complicationts of transfusion

author: Július Hodosy | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology | viewed: 1598x | published on: 30.9.2010 | last modified on: 25.5.2011

Practicals_Blood 4

 Basic description of immune system, types of leukocytes, blood smear. 

author: Daniela Ostatníková | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology | viewed: 1802x | published on: 30.9.2010 | last modified on: 25.5.2011
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