Human skin seems to be simply external coverage of the human body. This statement is not completely true, as human skin, in addition to its protective function from the external environment, does have a range of other functions such as mechanical barrier, external immune barrier, participation in thermoregulation, excretion of sweat and sebum, sensory functions, and identification functions for the human being. Skin is the largest organ of the human body, as its average surface in adult persons is about 2 m2 and its total mass is about 5 kg. An extensive burn injury affecting more than 20% of the body surface area, can lead to temporary, or permanent dysfunction or failure of the skin organ which could become a life threatening situation.
B lymphocytes are principal cells that mediate humoral adaptive immunity. After their maturation in the bone marrow, B cells enter peripheral lymphoid tissues, which are the sites of interaction with foreign antigens. Production of antibodies is initiated by the interaction of antigens with a small number of mature B cells specific for each antigen. An antigen binds to the membrane receptors on specific B cells and initiates a series of responses that lead to two principal changes: cell proliferation resulting in expansion of the clone, and differentiation to either plasma cells actively secreting antibodies or to memory cells.
Key words: B cells, subsets of B cells, memory B cells, plasma cells
Metabolism, metabolic rate. Basal metabolic rate. Total daily energy expenditure. Factors that determine the metabolic rate. Measurement of the metabolic rate. Energy balance. Metabolism and physical activity. Oxygen debt. Efficiency of physical work. Metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohysrates. Fed state and fasting state metabolism.
The lecture „Radioactivity“ is aimed to explain basic terms as radioactive isotopes, natural and artificial radioactivity, law of radioactive decay, half-life of decay (physical, biological, effective), mean life-time, activity and connected formulas and physical units.
The presentation explains the origin of resting membrane potential, principle of its measurement, its interpretation mainly based on diffusion potential (Donnan equilibrium), its calculation using the Nernst and the Goldman equations. Suitable to all study branches.
Basic terminology of Medical Statistics. Suitable to all degrees of study and to all classes.
The aim of this lecture is to familiarize students with the sample characteristics that are most commonly used in the evaluation of medical experiments and occur in medical scientific and professional literature. Suitable to all study programmes and to all classes.
Overview of biological signals. Suitable to all study branches.
The lecture „Dosimetry - Measurement of Ionising Radiation“ is aimed to explain the term dosimetry and the basic quantities characterising the radiation from the aspect of their biological effects that allow to measure and to quantify them. Terms as dose, absorbed dose, absorbed dose rate, integral dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, kerma, kerma rate, exposure, exposure rate and connected formulas and physical units are explained.
The presentation offers an introduction to active electric biosignals from the point of view of their registration possibilities and analysis. Suitable to all study branches.