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Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava
Comenius University in Bratislava
MEFANET (MEdical FAculties Educational NETwork) Project

Presentations

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Blood physiology

Blood physiology

Slides to the lecture on blood physiology.

Blood - composition, functions. Erythrocytes and their function, haemoglobin. Blood groups. Platelets and haemostasis. Leukocytes and their immune unctions. Plasma - composition, function, osmotic and oncotic pressure. Haemopoiesis. Blood and acid-base balance.

 
author: Katarína Babinská | discipline: Physiology and Pathophysiology | viewed: 2469x | published on: 9.10.2015 | last modified on: 20.10.2015

Femtosecond laser in cataract surgery

Femtosecond laser in cataract surgery

Femtosecond laser uses an infrared beam of light to precisely separate tissue through a process called photodisruption by generating pulses as short as one-quadrillionth of a second. It has wavelength of 1053 nm and is based on the technology whereby focused laser pulses divide material at the molecular level without transfer of heat or impact to the surrounding tissue.

 

 
author: Alena Furdová, Efrosini Liampiri | discipline: Ophthalmology and Optometry | viewed: 4244x | published on: 9.6.2014 | last modified on: 9.6.2014

EPIBULBAR LESIONS

EPIBULBAR LESIONS

Epibulbar lesions are formed particularly in the conjunctiva and cornea. These lesions are classified into two distinct types that include pigmented and non-pigmented epibulbar lesions. The pigmented epibulbar lesions are those lesions that have pigments while the non-pigmented lesions are those that are translucent or transparent due to the absence of the pigments.         

 

 
author: Alena Furdová, Alsalman Ali Jameel, Silvia Lea Ferková | discipline: Ophthalmology and Optometry, Oncology, Radiation Therapy | viewed: 4246x | published on: 23.5.2014 | last modified on: 23.5.2014

Skeletopedia - Interactive 3D atlas of human bones

Skeletopedia - Interactive 3D atlas of human bones

www.skeletopedia.sk

Creation of 3D atlas of human bones as an internet page with use of HTML5, Javascript, PHP and MySQL. To obtain polygonal models surface scanners and CT i-CAT scanner were used. Scanned models are true human bones, property of Department of Anatomy LF UK. Primary audience of the atlas are students of medicine. Atlas contains also interactive annotations, automatic search and visualisation of bone structures on 3D models, brief charts with key facts about bones and quizzes.

 
author: Tomáš Havran, Michal Slabej, Peter Šulík | discipline: Anatomy | viewed: 1927x | published on: 25.4.2014 | last modified on: 25.4.2014

Preparation of patient before surgery

Here you can find some basic things, which should be done with average patient before surgery.

It has 5 basic steps - lowering the risk of the surgery, appropriate diagnosis, preparation of the operation field, psychological preparation and informed consent.

There are some links to other pages as well.

 
author: Jozef Rybár | discipline: Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics | viewed: 1586x | published on: 28.10.2013 | last modified on: 25.11.2013

Slovak expressions commonly used by communication with patient

In this presentation you can find some basic sentences and expressions, which you should know, when you will be going to take the history of the patient and examine him.

It should help you in the time, when you are starting your clinical practise, where the communication with the patient in slovak language is very important. Later there will be situations, where you will need to speak with the patient by your own withou having somebody for translation.

 
author: Jozef Rybár | discipline: Surgery, Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Internal Medicine | viewed: 1835x | published on: 23.10.2013 | last modified on: 23.10.2013

Practicals in Immunology No. 7: Diagnosis of Allergy

Practicals in Immunology No. 7: Diagnosis of Allergy

Presentation provides basic facts on allergic reactions - mechanism, symptoms, allergens. Main accent is put on diagnostic possibilities, both laboratory and in vivo (skin tests). Basic information about anaphylaxis and its management is included as well.                                                                   

 
author: Ivana Shawkatová | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 1484x | published on: 24.5.2013 | last modified on: 24.5.2013

Practicals in Immunology No.6: Methods used in Transplantation Immunology (HLA-Typing)

Practicals in Immunology No.6: Methods used in Transplantation Immunology (HLA-Typing)

Presentation provides basic information on the HLA-complex and transplantation immunology, with focus on kidney and haematopoetic stem cell transplantations. Most important HLA-typing methods are explained as well as other techniques used in donor-recipient pair selection.           

 
author: Ivana Shawkatová | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 1984x | published on: 24.5.2013 | last modified on: 24.5.2013

Serological methods I

Serological methods I

Serological methods are basic diagnostic methods used to identify antibodies and antigens in patient sample (serum, plasma). Agglutination and precipitation belong to classical serological methods that are used in diagnosis of infectious diseases (antibodies screening), serotyping of microorganisms and human blood group typing. Agglutination is based on reaction of particular (insoluble) antigen with antibodies, whereas precipitation involves reaction of colloidal (soluble) antigen and antibodies. In the immunodiagnostics an agglutination method as Coombs test is used to determine anti Rh antibodies in pregnant women (diagnosis of hemolytic disease of newborn). Another agglutination method involves latex agglutination that is used to determine, i.e. rheumatoid factor (diagnosis of autoimmune diseases) and hemagglutination method that can be used in, i.e. antibodies screening against Treponema pallidum, the main cause of syphilis. Radial immunodiffusion assay belongs to the precipitation method. This quantitative assay is based on immunodiffusion of antigens and antibodies in the gel and can be used in level analysis of complement components (C3, C4), inflammation proteins (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA). Modern precipitation methods performed in fluid involve nephelometry and turbidimetry.

 
author: Vladimíra Ďurmanová | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 5946x | published on: 23.5.2013 | last modified on: 23.5.2013

Hypersensitivity reactions, types II till V

Hypersensitivity reactions, types II till V

A principal biological role of the immune system is an eradication of both external as well internal violators of integrity of the organism. External „enemies“ are represented mainly by germs; those of internal origin belong especially to potentially malignant cells that appear in our organisms as the results of a breakdown of their replication mechanisms.Under certain circumstances, however, the immune response can have deleterious effects, resulting in significant tissue damage or even death. This inappropriate immune response is termed hypersensitivity. Although the word hypersensitivity implies an increased response, the response is not always heightened but may, instead, be an inappropriate immune response to an antigen.
Several forms of hypersensitive reaction can be distinguished, reflecting differences in the effector molecules generated in the course of the reaction. In immediate hypersensitive reactions different antibody isotypes induce different immune effector molecules. IgE antibodies, for example, induce mast cell degranulation with release of histamine and other biologically active molecules. IgG and IgM antibodies, on the other hand, induce hypersensitive reactions by activating complement. The effector molecules in these reactions are the membrane-attack complex and such complement split products as C3a, C4a and C5a. In delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, the effector molecules are various cytokines secreted by T helper cells and macrophages. As it became clear that different immune mechanisms can give rise to hypersensitive reactions, P. G. H. Gell and R. R. A. Coombs proposed a classification scheme in which hypersensitive reactions are divided into four types, I, II, III, and IV, each involving distinct mechanisms; later type V was added. Antibodies mediate four types of hypersensitive reactions: IgE-mediated (type I), cytotoxic (type II), immune complex (type III), and stimulatory/inhibitory (type V) hypersensitivity, respectively. T cells initiate the last type of hypersensitivity (type IV) and clinical symptoms appear more days after exposure; it is therefore referred to as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). However, a great deal of com¬plexity exists within each type of reactions that blurs the boundaries between them.
 

 
author: Milan Buc | discipline: Immunology, Allergology | viewed: 33796x | published on: 13.5.2013 | last modified on: 14.5.2013
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