Getting started with team based learning at the Faculty of Medicine Comenius University in Bratislava
The education and training of medical doctors and other health professionals are undergoing fundamental transformation in a worldwide context. The traditional teaching models are currently being substituted or complemented by up-to date study models. They open more space to innovative pedagogic strategies that facilitate active learning and student-centred teaching approaches.
Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative teaching/learning strategy that is based on students’ learning in small teams. It is a relatively new approach in medical education, but the evidence for its academic effectiveness in this field is growing.
Authors of the booklet provide an overview of the basic concepts of the TBL and share their experience with introducing TBL into physiology teaching of medical students.
Priapism is an abnormal penile erection which is generally not initiated by sexual stimulation and doesn’t lead to ejaculation lasting more than 6 hours in a case of ischemic priapism. It is an urgent medical condition that requires evaluation and often rapid treatment to avoid loss of erectile function. The priapism may result either from reduction or loss of the normal venous outflow from the penis=veno-occlusive, ischemic, anoxic or low-flow priapism or abnormal arterial inflow into the penis= arterial, non-ischemic or high-flow priapism.
Serological methods are basic diagnostic methods used to identify antibodies and antigens in patient sample. Up-to-date serological methods involve detection of unknown concentration of antigen or antibodies in patient sample using specific labelled antibodies. In immunodiagnostics, the most used serological methods are: immunofluorescence (IF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoblotting (Western blotting). Immunofluorescence (IF) detects antigens or antibodies by fluorochrome-labelled antibodies under fluorescence microscope. In the immunodiagnostics the IF is applied to detect autoantibodies in the tissue or patient serum. ELISA detects antigens and antibodies using enzyme-labelled antibodies following evaluation by spectrophotometry. In the immunodiagnostics, ELISA is widely used in quantitative analysis of autoantibodies, antibodies to vaccination antigens, bacterial and viral antigens, cytokines, etc. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a quantitative and sensitive diagnostic method to detect antigens or antibodies by radioisotope-labelled antibodies. In the immunodiagnostics, the RIA is used to detect the level of IgE involved in allergic reactions. Immunoblotting is a qualitative method based on protein separation in gel following by their transfer from the gel to the membrane and protein detection by enzyme-labelled antibodies. ELISA and immunoblotting belongs to the serological methods used in the confirmation of HIV positivity.
Cunningham Textbook of Anatomy (12th Edition, iss. 1981) provides the complete description of the separated skull bones, together with the description of the skull spaces and joints. This decription is suitable for the more detailed study of the skull then that offered by other recommended textbooks, enable students to be better prepared for the tests of Anatomy subject.
Suitable mainly for Dentistry branch students, but of course for the students of the General Medicine branch.
ECG description, basic pathological findings, step to step description of ECG.