Serological methods are basic diagnostic methods used to identify antibodies and antigens in patient sample. Up-to-date serological methods involve detection of unknown concentration of antigen or antibodies in patient sample using specific labelled antibodies. In immunodiagnostics, the most used serological methods are: immunofluorescence (IF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoblotting (Western blotting). Immunofluorescence (IF) detects antigens or antibodies by fluorochrome-labelled antibodies under fluorescence microscope. In the immunodiagnostics the IF is applied to detect autoantibodies in the tissue or patient serum. ELISA detects antigens and antibodies using enzyme-labelled antibodies following evaluation by spectrophotometry. In the immunodiagnostics, ELISA is widely used in quantitative analysis of autoantibodies, antibodies to vaccination antigens, bacterial and viral antigens, cytokines, etc. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a quantitative and sensitive diagnostic method to detect antigens or antibodies by radioisotope-labelled antibodies. In the immunodiagnostics, the RIA is used to detect the level of IgE involved in allergic reactions. Immunoblotting is a qualitative method based on protein separation in gel following by their transfer from the gel to the membrane and protein detection by enzyme-labelled antibodies. ELISA and immunoblotting belongs to the serological methods used in the confirmation of HIV positivity.
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citation: Ďurmanová Vladimíra: Serological methods II. Multimedia support in the education of clinical and health care disciplines :: Portal of Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University [online] , [cit. 07. 04. 2020]. Available from WWW: https://portal.fmed.uniba.sk/articles.php?aid=235. ISSN 1337-9577.